With the assassination in 1948 by state security officers of the head of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, Solomon Mikhoels, new times begin in the relationship between the Soviet government and Jews. The liquidation of the JAC, the execution of its activists, and the campaign against the "rootless cosmopolitans" form a new state anti-Semitism. The death of Stalin will cancel the massacre, but the former official Russian-Jewish harmony under socialism will no longer be restored. Popularly known superstars have not diminished: Botvinnik is the main chess player, Raikin is the main comedian, Plisetskaya is the main ballerina, Galich and Vysotsky are the main bards, many famous names in various fields, from nuclear physics to light music. But Jews have ceased to be co-authors of Russian communism. And they are no longer allowed into politics, and they themselves are especially actively engaged in "anti-Soviet activities." Without the Jews, the shadow economy is unimaginable, or rather “illegal business”, for which death sentences have been handed down since the early 1960s. And from the middle of the decade, the dissident movement begins to shake the system; the grandchildren of Jewish revolutionaries bring into it the same ardor and fearlessness that their grandfathers did in the overthrow of tsarism. Allowing Jewish emigration in the 1970s makes nationality a means of rejecting socialism and will prove to be a more frequent reason for leaving than the opportunity to reverse one's Russian assimilation. Finally, the collapse of the USSR will put an end to the "Jewish question" in the form in which the last Soviet generations found it.